The work of John Bluemle PhD

Fig. 11-F

glacial ice, geology, North Dakota

Debris-covered glacial ice in Alaska. When thick, debris-laden glacier melts, the material that was within the ice becomes concentrated on the surface of the remaining ice. As the debris cover becomes thicker, it becomes an increasingly effective cover of insulation, causing the remaining ice to melt more and more slowly. During Late Wisconsinan time, about 14,000 years ago, debris-covered glacial ice like that shown here covered the Missouri Coteau and Turtle Mountain. It may have taken as long as 3,000 years for the insulated ice to melt. During that time, forests grew on top of the slowly melting glacier. The resulting topography is referred to as “dead-ice-moraine.”
In the distance (top of this photo), forest can be seen growing on the debris-covered glacial ice.

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